To understand the topic as complex as Jadugoda, a basic understanding of what is radiation, how it effects humans and surroundings, how much is harmful, etc are dealt with. Limits of radiation, basic mechanism in which radiation affects the body, and background radiation are touched upon in the below study.

Using this background, a literature survey on radiation levels and general health at Jadugoda was carried out, and popular myths are dispelled.

It contains three parts.

1. Need for Nuclear power and mining in India

2. Effects of Radiation, Background radiation, measuring radiation and radiation limits, etc

3. Jadugoda]]>

You can visualize it in a larger scale. In a scaled up model, a pieso electric plate is like a trampoline(the working).

Now what will happen if I asked you to walk on a trampoline?

You will certainly need more energy to walk on a trampoline than on a normal ground.

Some extra energy is used to stretch the trampoline, from which I can generate electricity. This same principle is used in pieso electric materials, only in a nano scale.

So where is the extra energy coming from?

The food we eat. The food we eat goes through two processes, first through our own body(where it gets burnt up) and then through the piesoelectric material. Instead you can simply burn the food, and generate more electricity directly, which is more efficient.

So as a summary, you are just changing energy from food produced by farmers, in a very inefficient way, and in a micro level personally(and macro level in total), by investing extra money.

Edit: I would like some expert to advise on this post.]]>

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If they were both rational, then

would also be rational, which implies that (π−e) is an algebraic number (i.e., the root of some nonzero polynomial with rational coefficients).

Since π+e is rational and thus algebraic by hypothesis, it follows that (π−e)+(π+e)=2π is algebraic (being the sum of two algebraic numbers) and hence so is π.

Similarly, we can infer that e is algebraic.

However, both are known to be transcendental — contradiction.

]]>Since π+e is rational and thus algebraic by hypothesis, it follows that (π−e)+(π+e)=2π is algebraic (being the sum of two algebraic numbers) and hence so is π.

Similarly, we can infer that e is algebraic.

However, both are known to be transcendental — contradiction.

Supposing a simplistic chair (stool) with four legs,

What kind of supports should we give to the end of the legs in the chair?

If this question was asked in mechanics, the answer would be simply supported.

But in design, we should fix three legs in y direction and one leg in all directions.

That is because the fixed leg acts as reference for the movement of the other three legs. In other words, we are restricting the velocity of the chair in all three directions, ie giving boundary conditions in all three directions.

Then we get the solution as below.

If this question was asked in mechanics, the answer would be simply supported.

But in design, we should fix three legs in y direction and one leg in all directions.

That is because the fixed leg acts as reference for the movement of the other three legs. In other words, we are restricting the velocity of the chair in all three directions, ie giving boundary conditions in all three directions.

Then we get the solution as below.

Now let us consider the following cases:

The solution for case 3 is given below

Note that the left leg(as shown in figure 1) is the fourth leg.

]]>Note that the left leg(as shown in figure 1) is the fourth leg.

with the essential boundary condition of u(0) = U0 and natural boundary condition of

at x = L , and the domain 0 < x <L appears in several forms in engineering.

**CABLE(ROPE) UNDER A TRANSVERSE LOAD**

u = deflection

a= tension

q(x)= transverse load (eg: weight of cable)

Q = Axial force

**BAR IN TENSION**

u = deflection

a= EA

q(x)= Friction(Traction on the bar)

Q = Axial force

**HEAT TRANSFER**

u = Temperature

a= Thermal conductivity(k)

q(x)= Heat generated

Q = Heat flux

**ONE DIMENSIONAL LAMINAR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW** (Gradient(p)=const)

u = velocity

a= viscosity (η)

q(x)= Pressure gradient

Q = Axial stress

**FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA IN ONE DIMENSION**

u = Fluid head

a= Permeability const

q(x)= flux

Q = Flow

**ELECTROSTATICS**

u = Electrostatic potential

a= dielectric constant

q(x)= charge density

Q = Electric Flux

]]>u = deflection

a= tension

q(x)= transverse load (eg: weight of cable)

Q = Axial force

u = deflection

a= EA

q(x)= Friction(Traction on the bar)

Q = Axial force

u = Temperature

a= Thermal conductivity(k)

q(x)= Heat generated

Q = Heat flux

u = velocity

a= viscosity (η)

q(x)= Pressure gradient

Q = Axial stress

u = Fluid head

a= Permeability const

q(x)= flux

Q = Flow

u = Electrostatic potential

a= dielectric constant

q(x)= charge density

Q = Electric Flux

Theories for the Mpemba effect have included faster evaporation of hot water, therefore reducing the volume left to freeze; formation of a frost layer on cold water, insulating it; and different concentrations of solutes such as carbon dioxide, which is driven off when the water is heated. Unfortunately the effect doesn’t always appear - cold water often does actually freeze faster than hot, as you would expect. But this Mpemba effect occurs regularly, and no one has ever been able to definitively answer why.

Some scientists have found evidence that it is the chemical bonds that hold water together that provide the effect. Each water molecule is composed of one oxygen atom bonded covalently to two hydrogen molecules. The separate water molecules are also bound together by weaker forces generated by hydrogen bonds. These forces occur when a hydrogen atom from one molecule of water sits close to an oxygen atom from another.

They suggest that it is these bonds that cause the Mpemba effect. They propose that when the water molecules are brought into close contact, a natural repulsion between the molecules causes the covalent bonds to stretch and store energy. When the liquid warms up, the hydrogen bonds stretch as the water gets less dense and the molecules move further apart.

The stretching in the hydrogen bonds allows the covalent bonds to relax and shrink somewhat, which causes them to give up their energy. The process of covalent bonds giving up their energy is essentially the same as cooling, and so warm water should in theory cool faster than cold.

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A shortcut to find the element stiffness matrix

]]>Done completely using AutoCAD, a properly edited video will be uploaded shortly.